Zingiberaceae Martinov
  • Tekhno-Bot. Slovar. 682. 1820. (3 Aug 1820)
  • Ginger Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Zingiberaceae Martinov. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000651. Accessed on: 19 Oct 2021'

General Information

Herbs, perennial [annual], from tuberous rhizome [tuberous roots]. Aerial stems present or absent, unbranched. Leaves basal or basal and cauline, in 2 ranks, differentiated into basal sheath, petiole, and blade, or petiole absent; sheaths often overlapping to form pseudostem, open, ligule present, summit of petiole not differentiated; blade with lateral veins parallel, diverging from prominent midrib. Inflorescences 1 per aerial shoot, terminating short stem without laminate leaves or projecting from tip [side] of pseudostem, pedunculate racemes of flowers or of 2--7-flowered monochasial cymes (cincinni); bracts of main axis enclosing or subtending flowers or cincinni. Flowers bisexual, bilaterally symmetric; sepals and petals differentiated, sepals 3, connate, petals 3, connate, but sepals free from petals; fertile stamens 1, not petal-like; anthers 2-locular; 2 connate staminodes forming petal-like structure (lip) opposite fertile stamen, sometimes also with 2 petal-like or rudimentary distinct staminodes; ovary inferior, 3-carpellate, [1-]3-locular, all locules fertile; placentation axile, parietal, or ± basal; ovules many per locule; style held between pollen-sacs of anther, filiform; stigma funnelform, sometimes slightly 2-lobed; style base free from stamen and staminodes. Fruits capsules or berries; sepals often persistent in fruit. Seeds: aril present; endosperm copious; perisperm copious; embryo straight.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Herbs perennial, terrestrial, rarely epiphytic, aromatic, with fleshy, tuberous or non-tuberous rhizomes, often with tuber-bearing roots. Stems usually short, replaced by pseudostems formed by leaf sheaths. Leaves distichous, simple, those toward base of plant usually bladeless and reduced to sheaths; leaf sheath open; ligule usually present; petiole present or not, located between leaf blade and sheath, cushionlike in Zingiber; leaf blade suborbicular or lanceolate to narrowly strap-shaped, rolled longitudinally in bud, glabrous or hairy, midvein prominent, lateral veins usually numerous, pinnate, parallel, margin entire. Inflorescence terminal on pseudostems or on separate, short, sheath-covered shoots arising from rhizomes, cylindric or fusiform, sometimes globose, lax to dense, few to many flowered, sometimes with bracteolate cincinni in bract axils and then a thyrse, sometimes a raceme or spike; bracts and bracteoles present, often conspicuous, colored. Flowers bisexual, epigynous, zygomorphic. Calyx usually tubular, thin, split on 1 side, sometimes spathelike, apex 3-toothed or -lobed. Corolla proximally tubular, distally 3-lobed; lobes varying in size and shape. Stamens or staminodes 6, in 2 whorls. Lateral 2 staminodes of outer whorl petaloid, or forming small teeth at base of labellum, or adnate to labellum, or absent. Median staminode of outer whorl always reduced. Labellum formed from lateral 2 staminodes of inner whorl. Fertile stamen median, of inner whorl; filament long or short; anther locules 2, introrse, dehiscing by slits or occasionally pores; connective often extended basally into spurs and/or apically into a crest. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed initially, 1- or 3-loculed when mature; ovules ± numerous per locule; placentation parietal, basal, or axile. Developed style 1, very thin, placed in a furrow in filament and between anther locules; stigma appearing above anther, funnelform, papillose, ± wet, margin often ciliate. Stylodes 2, reduced to nectaries at apex of ovary. Fruit a capsule, fleshy or dry, dehiscent or indehiscent, sometimes berrylike. Seeds few to many, arillate; aril often lobed or lacerate.

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    Morphology

    Perianth 6-merous, 2-seriate, the outer calyx-like, the inner corolla-like and often very showy and delicate; outer segments united into a tube, inner more or less united, the posterior segment usually the largest

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    Flowers solitary or in a distinct inflorescence accompanying or separate from the leaves, mostly bisexual, symmetric or asymmetric

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    Leaves in two rows or spirally arranged, with an open or closed sheath, sessile or stalked on the sheath, the blade usually large with numerous closely parallel pinnate nerves diverging obliquely from the midrib

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    Seeds mostly arillate; endosperm abundant, white

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    Perennial herbs, usually aromatic, with horizontal tuberous rhizomes; stems sometimes very short, leafy or bearing only flowers

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    Ovary inferior, (2-)3-celled with axile placentas, or 1-locular with parietal or rarely basal placentas; style sometimes enveloped in a groove of the fertile stamen

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    Stamen 1, with a 2-locular anther, sometimes accompanied by petaloid staminodes which may form the conspicuous part of the flower (see Fig. 341)

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    Fruit fleshy and indehiscent or a capsule

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    Ovules mostly numerous

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    Seeds surrounded by a fimbriate aril, usually smooth and hard, with abundant endosperm

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    All parts are glabrous, or hairy with simple (rarely stellate) unicellular hairs (bicellular in >i>Costus)

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    Leaves solitary at the nodes or occasionally crowded at the base of the stem, alternate and 2-rowed, or (>i>Costus) in an open spiral, consisting of sheath, ligule and lamina; sheaths encircling the stem, sometimes forming a pseudostem, with the margins free or joined; ligule adaxial, often bilobed, sometimes (>i>Costus) encircling the stem and then often called an ochrea; lamina usually narrowly elliptic, narrowing into a short false petiole, with a strong median nerve and parallel laterals which diverge from the midrib at about 45° (in >i>Costus the laterals are themselves joined by parallel tertiary veins)

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    Vegetative parts with oil cells (except in Costus) and aromatic

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    Ovary inferior, 3-locular, with axile placentation and usually numerous ovules; style and stigma one

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    Perennial herbs, usually with creeping rhizomes; usually terrestrial but occasionally (not in East Africa) epiphytic; sterile and fertile shoots often separate, usually unbranched

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    Androecium composed of a single, often petaloid stamen, with anther-thecae dehiscing by longitudinal slits, and a large petaloid variously lobed member, the labellum, formed from 2 fused staminodes (filamentous outgrowths at the base of the stamen are sometimes claimed to represent other staminodes; in >i>Costus 5 staminodes are believed to be involved in the formation of the labellum)

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    Fruit a berry or capsule, often large and with thick fleshy walls, usually black or red when ripe; sometimes subterranean

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    Nectaries of various forms occur either beside the style-base (those which are paired and elongated have often been called stylodia), or embedded in the top of the ovary

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    Flowers (hermaphrodite, strongly zygomorphic, 3-merous

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    Inflorescences racemose (spikes, panicles and racemes occur); bracts and bracteoles (if present) usually large and conspicuous, sometimes coloured

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    Petals 3, equal or unequal, fused at the base with the androecium to form a perianth-tube, imbricate in bud

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    Calyx tubular or spathaceous, often 3-lobed at the apex, valvate

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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Ginger Family

     Information From

    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • A Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Zingiberaceae Resource Center
    http://padme.rbge.org.uk/ZRC/welcome
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).