Zygophyllaceae R.Br.
  • Voy. Terra Austral. 2: 545. 1814. (19 Jul 1814)
  • Creosote Bush Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Zygophyllaceae R.Br. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000653. Accessed on: 27 Nov 2021'

General Information

Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, or trees, annual or perennial, branching usually divaricate, growth sympodial, nodes angled or swollen, evergreen [deciduous], synoecious [dioecious]. Leaves opposite or fascicled [alternate or on short lateral branches], palmately or even- [odd-]pinnately compound [simple]; stipules present; petiole present [absent]; blade often fleshy or coriaceous, margins entire; venation pinnate. Inflorescences pseudoaxillary [terminal], flowers solitary or in 2-flowered clusters [cymes]. Flowers bisexual [unisexual], usually regular, sometimes slightly irregular; perianth and androecium hypogynous; hypanthium absent; sepals 4–5, usually distinct, rarely connate basally; petals 4–5, distinct [rarely connate basally], often clawed, sometimes twisted; nectary usually present, extrastaminal and/or intrastaminal, rarely absent; stamens [5–](8–)10 in 2 whorls, outer usually opposite petals, often alternately unequal in length or sterile, distinct, free or adnate to petal bases, inserted on or proximal to nectary, frequently glandular or appendaged at base; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits; pistil 1, (2–)5-carpellate, ovary superior, (2–)5–10-locular; placentation axile [basal]; ovules (1–)2–10 per locule, anatropous; style 1; stigma 1. Fruits capsules, dehiscence septicidal or loculicidal, or schizocarps splitting into 5 or 10 mericarps. Seeds 1–5(–10) per locule.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Shrubs, shrublets, or perennial herbs, rarely annuals. Stipules distinct or connate, often persistent. Leaves opposite or sometimes alternate, simple or pinnate, often fleshy. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, solitary, racemose, or cymose. Flower bisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Sepals 4 or 5, imbricate or valvate. Petals 4 or 5, imbricate or valvate. Stamens 4 or 5 or up to 3 × as many as petals, with or without appendages. Ovary usually (2 or)3-5(-12)-locular. Fruit a drupe, capsule, or schizocarp, leathery or fragile.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Seeds mostly with some endosperm; embryo as long as the seed, straight or slightly curved

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Disk mostly present

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stamens the same number to three times the number of the petals, often unequal in length; filaments free, often with a scale inside; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Ovary superior, sessile or rarely stipitate, usually 4–5-celled; cells rarely transversely locellate; style simple, short, or stigmas sessile; ovules 2 or more in each cell, axile

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Fruits various

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or zygomorphic

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, 2-foliolate or pinnate, rarely 3-foliolate, not gland-dotted; stipules present, persistent, often spinescent

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Petals 4–5, rarely absent, hypogynous, free, imbricate or contorted, rarely valvate

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Sepals 5, rarely 4, free or rarely connate at the base, imbricate, rarely valvate

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Shrubs or herbs woody at the base, rarely trees; branches often jointed at the nodes

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Seeds 1 or more in each loculus; embryo straight or curved; endosperm present (often very scanty) or absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Fruit a capsule or at length breaking up into indehiscent cocci, sometimes winged or provided with tubercles or spines

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Annual or perennial herbs (sometimes with a woody base) or shrublets or shrubs, with simple hairs

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers solitary or rarely in cymes, actinomorphic, bisexual or rarely unisexual, hypogynous

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Sepals (4) 5, free or connate at the very base, persistent or deciduous, usually imbricate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves usually opposite, 2- (rarely 1- or 3-) foliolate or pan-pinnate; leaflets entire

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stipules present, persistent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Ovary usually sessile, syncarpous, 4–5-locular with 2 or more pendulous ovules in each loculus; style usually simple, terete or angular or furrowed

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens obdiplostemonous, usually twice as many as the petals, with free filaments and 2-thecous introrse anthers

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Petals (4) 5, imbricate, rarely contorted or valvate, free, sessile or unguiculate; disk usually present, sometimes provided with extra- and intrastaminal glands

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Seed with or without albuminous endosperm; embryo straight or curved

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Fruit capsular or fleshy, sometimes splitting into 5 indehiscent mericarps

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Ovary on a glandular or annular disc, superior, 4-5-locular, with axile placentation; ovules 2-many on each placenta, pendulous; style 1, sometimes very short, rarely absent; stigma 1, simple, variously shaped

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Stamens 1-2 as many as the petals in 1-2 whorls, often unequal, outer ones usually opposite the petals, hypogynous; filaments broadened at the base, free, naked or with basal scales; anthers introrse, 2-thecous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Petals as many as the sepals, free, clawed, twisted in bud

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Sepals usually (4-)5, free or rarely basally connate, persistent or deciduous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite, rarely alternate, mostly pinnately compound, occasionally simple; leaflets sessile, opposite, epunctate, generally unequal, flat or fleshy and sometimes terete; stipules 2, persistent, leathery, hairy or spinescent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Flowers solitary, paired or in axillary cymes, bisexual, regular or rarely zygomorphic; peduncle ebracteate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Perennial herbs or shrubs, rarely annuals; branches opposite, often jointed at the nodes

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Arbustes'ou herbes parfois ligneuses à la base; stipules persistantes, parfois transformées en épines.'Feuilles'opposées ou alternes, simples ou paripennées, rarement 3-foliolées.'Fleurs'☿, actinomorphes ou zygomorphes; sépales (4)5, libres ou rarement soudés à la base, imbriqués, rarement valvaires; pétales (1)5, rarement absents, libres, imbriqués ou contortés, rarement valvaires; étamines 1 à 3 fois le nombre des pétales, souvent inégales; filets libres, souvent avec une écaille interne; anthères à déhiscence longitudinale; disque généralement présent; ovaire supère, sessile ou rarement stipité, généralement 4-5-loculaire; loges rarement divisées transversalement, à 2 ovules ou plus; style simple, court ou stigmate sessile.'Fruits capsulaires, loculicides ou septicides ou se séparant en méricarpes.\n\t\t\tFamille comprenant environ 25 genres et 100 espèces des régions tropicales ou subtropicales; au Congo belge 1 genre et 1 espèce.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Beier, B.-A. et al. 2004. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the subfamily Zygophylloideae (Zygophyllaceae) based on molecular and morphological data. Pl. Syst. Evol. 240: 11–40. Porter, D. M. 1972. The genera of Zygophyllaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 53: 531–552. Porter, D. M. 1974b. Disjunct distributions in the New World Zygophyllaceae. Taxon 23: 339–346. Sheahan, M. C. and M. W. Chase. 1996. A phylogenetic analysis of Zygophyllaceae R. Br. based on morphological, anatomical and rbcL DNA sequence data. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 122: 279–300. Sheahan, M. C. and M. W. Chase. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships within Zygophyllaceae based on DNA sequences of three plastid regions, with special emphasis on Zygophylloideae. Syst. Bot. 25: 371–384.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Creosote Bush Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • F http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Zygophyllaceae
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).