Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
  • Gard. Dict. ed. 8 : n.º 1 (1768) 
  • Fennel


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2023): Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000691487. Accessed on: 04 Dec 2023'

Local Descriptions

Order descriptions by:

General Information

Plants 0.4–2 m. Lower petioles 5–15 cm; blade broadly triangular in outline, 4–30 × 5–40 cm, 4–5-pinnatisect; ultimate segments linear, 1–6 × ca. 0.1 mm. Umbels 5–9 cm across; peduncles 2–25 cm; rays 6–29(–40), unequal, 1.5–10 cm; umbellules 14–39-flowered; pedicels thin, 2–10 mm, unequal. Fruit 4–6(–10) × 1.5–2.2(–2.5) mm. Fl. May–Jun, fr. Jul–Sep.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora of China @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    1. Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8, Foeniculum no. 1 (1768). Sintipo: Herb. Cliff. 106 Anethum No. 2 (BM). Ilustr.: Mathias et al., Fl. Il. Catarin. Umbelíferas 45, t. 13 (1972). N.v.: Hinojo, anís, cilantrillo.

    Por L. Constance y J. Affolter.

    Plantas 90-120 cm, generalmente robustas y formando grupos. Hojas c. 30 × 40 cm, ovadas a triangular-ovadas, pinnadamente compuestas con divisiones posteriores 4-40 × c. 0.5 mm, filiformes, glaucas a verde oscuro; pecíolos 7-15 cm, completamente envainadores. Pedúnculos 1.5-6.5 cm; radios 8-30, 1-12 cm, patente-ascendentes en la flor, ascendentes a suberectos en el frutos, desiguales; pedicelos 2-10 mm, subiguales. Frutos 3.5-8 × 1.5-3 mm, las costillas prominentes, agudas pero no aladas. Ampliamente cultivada y adventicia. Ch (Laughlin 586, MEXU); Y (Váldez 99, MO); B (Dwyer y Spellman, 1981: 233); G (Gross 85, F); H (Molina R. 10140, F); ES (Renderos y Villacorta MR-295, MO); CR (Rodríguez 506, CR). 20-2850 m. (Adventicia en ambos hemisferios.)

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Plants up to 2 m tall, glabrous, glaucous. Stem striate. Leaves 3-4-pinnate; segments filiform, up to 4 cm long; leaf bases sheathing. Rays 5-30, 1-6 cm long. Carpophore divided to the base. Fruit oblong to ovoid, 3-5 mm long, glabrous.

  • Provided by: [M].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Aromatic perennial with a fusiform root; stems erect up to 1.5 m (or more), solid, finely striate, terete, branched, leafy. Ultimate leaf segments up to 40 by 0.5 mm. Rays of umbels 10–30, unequal, 1–4 cm. Petals obovate, deepish-yellow, ca 1 mm long, apically incurved. Fruit 3–5 by 0.5–2 mu ribs subequal.

  • Provided by: [E].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Short-lived perennial, stout, 1–2 m, glabrous and glaucous; lf-segments mostly 1–4(–5) cm, well under 1 mm wide; rays 10–40, unequal, mostly 2–8 cm at maturity; fr 3.5–4 mm, the ribs acute; 2n=22. Native of the Mediterranean region, now found throughout much of the U.S., especially southward, and elsewhere in warm regions.

  • Provided by: [L].Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Erect, glabrous, biennial or perennial herb 0.6–2(–2.4) m. tall, glaucous particularly above with a strong but pleasant aromatic odour resembling aniseed; root usually slender. Stem sparingly to considerably branched, wiry, terete, finely striate. Umbels numerous, on mostly 2.5–14 cm. peduncles; rays (3–)10–25(–30), glabrous, usually unequal, 2–6(–10) cm; partial umbels ± 6–23-flowered, on glabrous, 0.5–7(–10) mm. pedicels. Lower leaves 3–4-pinnate, with mostly 4–7 pairs of pinnae dissected into capillary segments very variable in length, ± 0.4–12 cm. × 0.5–0.75 mm., each terminating in a sharp generally brownish mucro; largest leaves up to 0.5 m. long, broadly deltoid; petiole ± 2–5 cm.; sheaths narrowly oblong, finely striate, 3.5–12(–20) cm., narrowly membranous-margined, auriculate at the top with blunt to acute, membranous auricles; upper leaves rapidly reducing, sessile on the sheaths, the uppermost often ± reduced to sheaths alone or with a short “brush” of leaflets. Fruit oblong-ellipsoid, slightly laterally compressed, ± 4–6 × 1.75–2.5 mm., the ribs pale and prominent, calyx obsolete; stylopodia at first short, in ripe fruit shortly cylindrical-subconical, margins crenulate; styles short, strongly deflexed on and shorter than the stylopodia. Petals ± 1 mm., yellow. Fig. 30.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Fruit 4–8 mm. long, narrowly ovoid at maturity, very distinctly glaucous-grey especially when immature; stylopodium rather low. Mericarps with ribs that are obvious at maturity, but inconspicuous in young fruit. Calyx teeth obsolete; petals bright yellow. Umbels terminal and lateral, rays (4)9–30, 1–11 cm. long, relatively robust and somewhat glaucous. Partial umbels with up to 12 flowers on pedicels 5–10 mm. long; bracts and bracteoles 0 (rarely few). Leaves with well-developed sheathing bases, up to 5 cm. long but frequently much shorter, 3–4-pinnate with finely-divided ultimate segments which are narrowly linear to capillary, becoming reduced upwards towards the inflorescence and finally occurring only as sheathing bases with 0–few linear lobes. Stems rigid when mature and with many fine distinct ribs. Robust, glabrous, somewhat glaucous perennial herb up to 2 m.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    80–200 cm hoch, kahl, bläulich bereift, aromatisch, am Grund eine Zwiebel bildend. Blätter 2–3fach gefiedert, mit langen, fadenförmigen Zipfeln. Blattscheiden 2–2,5 cm lang, kapuzenförmig ausgezogen. Dolden meist 10–25strahlig, ohne Hüllen u

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    7–10. Kultiviert und gelegentlich verwildert, z.T. in Weinbergen, an Mauern und Wegrändern eingebürgert, kollin. CH, zerstreut.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Widely cultivated and possibly subspontaneous.

  • Provided by: [E].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Europe (type) N. Africa, SW. Asia.

  • Provided by: [E].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Uses

    Fennel leaves and fruits are used for flavouring; the fruits are sometimes of medicinal use.

  • Provided by: [E].e-Flora of Thailand
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 
    Flora MesoamericanaGeneral Information

    1. Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8, Foeniculum no. 1 (1768). Sintipo: Herb. Cliff. 106 Anethum No. 2 (BM). Ilustr.: Mathias et al., Fl. Il. Catarin. Umbelíferas 45, t. 13 (1972). N.v.: Hinojo, anís, cilantrillo.

    Por L. Constance y J. Affolter.

    Plantas 90-120 cm, generalmente robustas y formando grupos. Hojas c. 30 × 40 cm, ovadas a triangular-ovadas, pinnadamente compuestas con divisiones posteriores 4-40 × c. 0.5 mm, filiformes, glaucas a verde oscuro; pecíolos 7-15 cm, completamente envainadores. Pedúnculos 1.5-6.5 cm; radios 8-30, 1-12 cm, patente-ascendentes en la flor, ascendentes a suberectos en el frutos, desiguales; pedicelos 2-10 mm, subiguales. Frutos 3.5-8 × 1.5-3 mm, las costillas prominentes, agudas pero no aladas. Ampliamente cultivada y adventicia. Ch (Laughlin 586, MEXU); Y (Váldez 99, MO); B (Dwyer y Spellman, 1981: 233); G (Gross 85, F); H (Molina R. 10140, F); ES (Renderos y Villacorta MR-295, MO); CR (Rodríguez 506, CR). 20-2850 m. (Adventicia en ambos hemisferios.)

    Flora of China @ efloras.orgGeneral Information

    Plants 0.4–2 m. Lower petioles 5–15 cm; blade broadly triangular in outline, 4–30 × 5–40 cm, 4–5-pinnatisect; ultimate segments linear, 1–6 × ca. 0.1 mm. Umbels 5–9 cm across; peduncles 2–25 cm; rays 6–29(–40), unequal, 1.5–10 cm; umbellules 14–39-flowered; pedicels thin, 2–10 mm, unequal. Fruit 4–6(–10) × 1.5–2.2(–2.5) mm. Fl. May–Jun, fr. Jul–Sep.

    Flora of PakistanGeneral Information

    Plants up to 2 m tall, glabrous, glaucous. Stem striate. Leaves 3-4-pinnate; segments filiform, up to 4 cm long; leaf bases sheathing. Rays 5-30, 1-6 cm long. Carpophore divided to the base. Fruit oblong to ovoid, 3-5 mm long, glabrous.

    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der SchweizMorphology

    80–200 cm hoch, kahl, bläulich bereift, aromatisch, am Grund eine Zwiebel bildend. Blätter 2–3fach gefiedert, mit langen, fadenförmigen Zipfeln. Blattscheiden 2–2,5 cm lang, kapuzenförmig ausgezogen. Dolden meist 10–25strahlig, ohne Hüllen u

    Ecology

    7–10. Kultiviert und gelegentlich verwildert, z.T. in Weinbergen, an Mauern und Wegrändern eingebürgert, kollin. CH, zerstreut.

    e-Flora of ThailandUses

    Fennel leaves and fruits are used for flavouring; the fruits are sometimes of medicinal use.

    Ecology

    Widely cultivated and possibly subspontaneous.

    Distribution

    Europe (type) N. Africa, SW. Asia.

    General Information

    Aromatic perennial with a fusiform root; stems erect up to 1.5 m (or more), solid, finely striate, terete, branched, leafy. Ultimate leaf segments up to 40 by 0.5 mm. Rays of umbels 10–30, unequal, 1–4 cm. Petals obovate, deepish-yellow, ca 1 mm long, apically incurved. Fruit 3–5 by 0.5–2 mu ribs subequal.

    Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and CanadaGeneral Information

    Short-lived perennial, stout, 1–2 m, glabrous and glaucous; lf-segments mostly 1–4(–5) cm, well under 1 mm wide; rays 10–40, unequal, mostly 2–8 cm at maturity; fr 3.5–4 mm, the ribs acute; 2n=22. Native of the Mediterranean region, now found throughout much of the U.S., especially southward, and elsewhere in warm regions.

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEAMorphology

    Erect, glabrous, biennial or perennial herb 0.6–2(–2.4) m. tall, glaucous particularly above with a strong but pleasant aromatic odour resembling aniseed; root usually slender. Stem sparingly to considerably branched, wiry, terete, finely striate. Umbels numerous, on mostly 2.5–14 cm. peduncles; rays (3–)10–25(–30), glabrous, usually unequal, 2–6(–10) cm; partial umbels ± 6–23-flowered, on glabrous, 0.5–7(–10) mm. pedicels. Lower leaves 3–4-pinnate, with mostly 4–7 pairs of pinnae dissected into capillary segments very variable in length, ± 0.4–12 cm. × 0.5–0.75 mm., each terminating in a sharp generally brownish mucro; largest leaves up to 0.5 m. long, broadly deltoid; petiole ± 2–5 cm.; sheaths narrowly oblong, finely striate, 3.5–12(–20) cm., narrowly membranous-margined, auriculate at the top with blunt to acute, membranous auricles; upper leaves rapidly reducing, sessile on the sheaths, the uppermost often ± reduced to sheaths alone or with a short “brush” of leaflets. Fruit oblong-ellipsoid, slightly laterally compressed, ± 4–6 × 1.75–2.5 mm., the ribs pale and prominent, calyx obsolete; stylopodia at first short, in ripe fruit shortly cylindrical-subconical, margins crenulate; styles short, strongly deflexed on and shorter than the stylopodia. Petals ± 1 mm., yellow. Fig. 30. Stem sparingly to considerably branched, wiry, terete, finely striate. Umbels numerous, on mostly 2.5–14 cm. peduncles; rays (3–)10–25(–30), glabrous, usually unequal, 2–6(–10) cm; partial umbels ± 6–23-flowered, on glabrous, 0.5–7(–10) mm. pedicels. Lower leaves 3–4-pinnate, with mostly 4–7 pairs of pinnae dissected into capillary segments very variable in length, ± 0.4–12 cm. × 0.5–0.75 mm., each terminating in a sharp generally brownish mucro; largest leaves up to 0.5 m. long, broadly deltoid; petiole ± 2–5 cm.; sheaths narrowly oblong, finely striate, 3.5–12(–20) cm., narrowly membranous-margined, auriculate at the top with blunt to acute, membranous auricles; upper leaves rapidly reducing, sessile on the sheaths, the uppermost often ± reduced to sheaths alone or with a short “brush” of leaflets. Fruit oblong-ellipsoid, slightly laterally compressed, ± 4–6 × 1.75–2.5 mm., the ribs pale and prominent, calyx obsolete; stylopodia at first short, in ripe fruit shortly cylindrical-subconical, margins crenulate; styles short, strongly deflexed on and shorter than the stylopodia. Petals ± 1 mm., yellow. Fig. 30.

    Flora Zambesiaca - descriptionsMorphology

    Fruit 4–8 mm. long, narrowly ovoid at maturity, very distinctly glaucous-grey especially when immature; stylopodium rather low. Mericarps with ribs that are obvious at maturity, but inconspicuous in young fruit. Calyx teeth obsolete; petals bright yellow. Umbels terminal and lateral, rays (4)9–30, 1–11 cm. long, relatively robust and somewhat glaucous. Partial umbels with up to 12 flowers on pedicels 5–10 mm. long; bracts and bracteoles 0 (rarely few). Leaves with well-developed sheathing bases, up to 5 cm. long but frequently much shorter, 3–4-pinnate with finely-divided ultimate segments which are narrowly linear to capillary, becoming reduced upwards towards the inflorescence and finally occurring only as sheathing bases with 0–few linear lobes. Stems rigid when mature and with many fine distinct ribs. Robust, glabrous, somewhat glaucous perennial herb up to 2 m. Calyx teeth obsolete; petals bright yellow. Umbels terminal and lateral, rays (4)9–30, 1–11 cm. long, relatively robust and somewhat glaucous. Partial umbels with up to 12 flowers on pedicels 5–10 mm. long; bracts and bracteoles 0 (rarely few). Leaves with well-developed sheathing bases, up to 5 cm. long but frequently much shorter, 3–4-pinnate with finely-divided ultimate segments which are narrowly linear to capillary, becoming reduced upwards towards the inflorescence and finally occurring only as sheathing bases with 0–few linear lobes. Stems rigid when mature and with many fine distinct ribs. Robust, glabrous, somewhat glaucous perennial herb up to 2 m.

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Asia-Tropical Indo-China Thailand
    • Europe Northern Europe Ireland
    • Southern America Brazil Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina

    Nationally Preferred Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    FennelEnglishIE
    FinéalIrishIE

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    FinotgRaeto-RomanceCH
    Finéal mhuiceIrishIE
    Finéal cumhraIrishIE
    Lus na croicheIrishIE
    Lus an tsaoiIrishIE
    Fineal chumhthraIrishIE
    MacánleontaIrishIE
    yira (ยี่หร่า)(Central)ThaiTHA
    phak chi (ผักชี)(Northern, Northeastern)ThaiTHA
    erva docePortuguese
    phak chi lao (ผักชีลาว)(Northeastern)ThaiTHA
    phak chi doi (ผักชีดอย)(Northern)ThaiTHA
    phak chi duean ha (ผักชีเดือนห้า)(Northern)ThaiTHA
    thian klaep (เทียนแกลบ)(Northern)ThaiTHA
    FenchelGermanCH
    phak chi lom (ผักชีล้อม)(Central)ThaiTHA
    Finocchio comuneItalianCH
    Fenouil communFrenchCH
    Meacan an leontaIrishIE

     Information From

    Apiaceae
    https://powo.science.kew.org/
    World Flora Online Data. 2022.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    e-Flora of Thailand
    https://www.dnp.go.th/botany/eflora/aboutus.html
    Chayamarit, K. & Balslev, H. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Thailand. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • D All Rights Reserved
    • E Forest Herbarium All rights reserved
    Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    http://www.flora-helvetica.ch
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
    • H All Rights Reserved
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • I
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • J Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora of China @ efloras.org
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • K Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    https://www.nybg.org/
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • L Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of Pakistan
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • M Missouri Botanical Garden
    Irish Vernacular Names
    https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/research-staff/article/380/wyse-jackson-peter-s.aspx
    • N All Rights Reserved
    Vahliaceae
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/Vahliaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • O CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).