Scrophulariaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 117–118. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) 


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2024): Scrophulariaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000561. Accessed on: 21 Feb 2024'

Local Descriptions

Order descriptions by:

General Information

Herbs, sometimes shrubs, rarely trees; mostly autotrophic, less often hemiparasitic or parasitic. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate, opposite, whorled, or basally opposite and apically alternate, simple or sometimes pinnately dissected. Inflorescences racemes, spikes, or thyrsoid panicles, determinate or indeterminate, or flowers solitary. Flowers perfect, usually zygomorphic, rarely actinomorphic. Calyx often persistent, (2-)4- or 5-lobed or -parted, variously connate. Corolla sympetalous; limb (3 or)4- or 5-lobed, often 2-lipped. Stamens mostly 4, didynamous, sometimes 1 or 2 staminodes present, less often 2 or 5 stamens; anther locules 1 or 2, equal or subequal, free or confluent. Nectary often present at base of ovary, ringlike, cupular, or reduced to a gland. Ovary superior, 2-loculed, rarely apically 1-loculed; ovules numerous, rarely 2 per locule, on axile placentas, anatropous or hemitropous. Style simple; stigma capitate, 2-lobed, or 2-lamellate. Fruit a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, or septifragal, sometimes opening by pores or irregularly dehiscent, rarely a berry. Seeds minute or rarely conspicuous, sometimes winged; testa often reticulate; hilum lateral or ventral; endosperm fleshy or absent; embryo straight or curved.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of China @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Fls perfect, hypogynous, sympetalous (rarely apetalous); cal 4–5-lobed or cleft; cor 5-lobed or less often 4-lobed, slightly to usually evidently irregular, often evidently bilabiate, sometimes spurred or saccate at base; stamens borne on the cor-tube alternate with the lobes, typically 4, or only 4 functional and the fifth (uppermost) one staminodial, sometimes only 2 (the upper lateral pair), seldom (Verbascum) 5 and all polliniferous; ovary superior, bilocular, with a terminal style and simple or 2-lobed stigma; placentation axile; fr mostly capsular; seeds (2–) ± numerous, with a straight or slightly curved dicotyledonous embryo and oily endosperm; herbs (all ours) or seldom woody plants, not infrequently hemiparasitic on the roots of other plants, but usually green even so; lvs exstipulate, opposite or alternate, simple to sometimes pinnately dissected, the fls in various sorts of infls, often large and showy. 190/4000.

  • Provided by: [E].Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Calyx imbricate or valvate Corolla-lobes imbricate Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate; stipules absent Flowers hermaphrodite, mostly zygomorphic Ovules numerous on axile placentas Seeds numerous, with fleshy endosperm Fruit a capsule or berry Stamens often 4 or 2, rarely 5, inserted on the corolla and alternate with the lobes, sometimes the fifth stamen represented by a staminode; filaments free from each other; anthers 1-2-celled, opening lengthwise Ovary superior, entire, usually 2-celled; style terminal Herbs or shrubs, rarely small trees

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Flowers solitary axillary or in terminal spikes, racemes, heads or panicles, arranged in racemes or cymes Flowers hermaphrodite, usually irregular, at times subregular Pedicels ebracteolate or bibracteolate Corolla tubular, campanulate, cylindric or ventricose or enlarged above; tube straight or variously curved to geniculate, at times basally produced into 1 or 2 spurs or sacs; limb usually 5- or 4-lobed, rarely 3–8-lobed, lobes subequal, more or less spreading, or clearly bilabiate with upper lip entire, emarginate or bilobed, erect, concave or galeate or at times flat or spreading, lower lip 3- (rarely 4-) lobed, spreading Calyx inferior, persistent, usually 5-lobed, occasionally 4-, or rarely 3-lobed, usually more or less united, campanulate, tubular, or shortly so almost lacking distinct tube, equal, unequal, valvate, variously overlapping or open in bud Filaments inserted in corolla tube or at throat, filiform or dilated, occasionally with lower variously appendaged at base Stamens 4, didynamous or equal, or 2 with occasionally 2 reduced to staminodes, or 5 with fifth subrudimentary, rarely perfect Ovary superior, sessile, entire, 2-, or rarely 3-celled, placentation central; style simple, entire or shortly cleft at apex; stigma small, capitate or clavate Anthers 1- orbilocular, free or frequently coherent, cells similar or with one smaller and sterile, connective often produced into 2 branches, each bearing cell Ovules many to numerous in each cell Seeds small, numerous, variously shaped, pitted, ridged or ribbed, rarely smooth Fruit usually capsular, septicidal or loculicidal, sometimes both, occasionally dehiscing by pores, rarely indehiscent Leaves opposite, alternate orverticillate, entire, toothed or variously lobed or dissected, or reduced to scales, estipulate Annual or perennial, terrestrial, amphibious or aquatic herbs, or leafless parasitic herbs lacking chlorophyll, shrubs or undershrubs, rarely trees, glabrous, variously pubescent or glandular-viscid

  • Provided by: [A].Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Plantes annuelles, bisannuelles ou pérennes, herbacées ou suffrutescentes, rarement lianes, arbustes ou arbres; tiges dressées, ascendantes ou prostrées. Feuilles le plus souvent opposées, rarement alternes, entières, rarement découpées ou pennées, les bases des feuilles souvent connées (gamophyllie), sans stipules. Inflorescences en racèmes ou thyrses, sans fleur terminale. Fleurs zygomorphes, avec ou sans bractéoles; calice à sépales libres ou soudés, actinomorphe ou zygomorphe, souvent tétramère suite à la'réduction du sépale médian; corolle sympétale, zygomorphe, rarement actinomorphe, les pétales postérieurs (adaxiaux) souvent soudés, formant une lèvre supérieure opposée à la lèvre inférieure, la gorge de la corolle souvent fermée par un palais saillant et épais; étamines alternipétales et insérées dans le tube, au nombre de 4, parfois réduit à 2, la cinquième (médiane) le plus souvent réduite ou avortée; filets filiformes, souvent courbés ou tordus; anthères à 2 thèques bien développées ou à une thèque normale et l'autre réduite ou avortée; pollen le plus souvent tricolpé; ovaire supère, à placentation centrale; carpelles 2, soudés, parfois l'un des deux réduit; ovules anatropes ou hémitropes. Fruits: capsules septicides, loculicides ou poricides, rarement fruits indéhiscents (drupes, noix ou baies). Graines nombreuses, petites, à surface lisse, réticulée ou diversement ornementée (alvéoles, sillons, ailes); albumen présent; embryon droit.'Famille cosmopolite, comprenant 300 genres et quelque 5400 - 5500 espèces. Pour la Flore: 40 genres et 188 espèces.'Les genres Russelia Jacq. et Angelonia Bonpland, d'origine américaine, sont plantés au Congo-Kinshasa et au Rwanda dans les jardins. Les deux genres ne sont pas repris dans la clé et les spécimens suivants ont été observés:'''Russelia equisetiformis Schltdl. & Cham., Linnaea, 6: 377 (1831).'' Russelia juncea Zucc., Flora, 15, Beibl. 2: 99 (1832).'''''Congo-Kinshasa: Côtier (Boma: Kuasa 15). Bas-Congo (Kisantu: Vanderyst 20228, 20378, 24550, 24551, 25721, 28630, 33535). Kasai (Gandajika: Chalon 313). Forestier Central (Kisangani: Lejoly 5468).Rwanda: Rwanda-Burundi (Kigali: Fischer s.n.).'''''Angelonia goyazensis Benth. in DC., Prodr., 10: 253 (1846).'''''Congo-Kinshasa: Bas-Congo (Kisantu: Vanderyst 20717, 20723, 245647, 24548, 24564, 24574, 24803, 28120, 28697, 28700; Kipako: Vanderyst 14599). Forestier Central (Yambata: De Giorgi 1798).' CLASSIFICATION DES SCROPHULARIACÉES La classification des Scrophulariacées fait l'objet d'une discussion controversée. Dans la classification traditionelle (e.g. Wettstein 1891 in Engler & Prantl; Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien), on distingue trois sous-familles: les Pseudosolanoideae, les Antirrhinoideae et les Rhinanthoideae. Les deux dernières sont distinguées même dans des travaux récents (e.g. Mielcarek 1996). D'après les analyses morphologiques (e.g. Fischer 1992, Hartl 1974) et des données préliminaires en systématique moléculaire (Olmstead & Reeves 1995), la famille des Scrophulariacées constitue un groupe hétérogène et polyphylétique. Il y a plusieurs taxons monophylétiques, qui sont ici distingués comme sous-familles et qui sont caractérisés surtout par l'anatomie et la morphologie de l'ovule et des graines. Une description détaillée sera publiée ailleurs. La famille des Orobanchacées est intégrée ici dans les Scrophulariacées, non comme sous-famille séparée, mais dans les Gerardioideae. L'ensemble des genres d'Orobanchacées peut être intégré dans trois groupes de Scrophulariacées parasitiques selon la morphologie de leurs graines. Dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale, il n'est représenté que par le genre Orobanche, très proche de Harveya. Nous donnons ci-après un synopsis de la classification des genres en Afrique Centrale.'Sous-famille Antirrhinoideae'\tTribu Antirrhineae'' \t'''' \tMisopates Raf.'''' Sous-famille Scrophularioideae'\tTribu Verbasceae'' \t \t\t\tRhabdotosperma Hartl'''''\tTribu Selagineae \t\t'''' \tHebenstretia L. \t\t\tSelago L.'''''\tTribu Hallerieae \t\t'''' \tHalleria L.'''''\tTribu Russelieae \t\t \t\t\tRusselia Jacq.'''' Sous-famille Hemimerioideae'\tTribu Hemimerideae'' \t'''' \tAngelonia Bonpland'''''\t\t\tDiclis Bentham \t\tSous-famille Gratioloideae Tribu Gratioleae'' \tSous-tribu Gratioliinae'''''' \tBacopa Aublet'''''''''' Scoparia L.'''''''' Sous-tribu Dopatriinae'''''' \tDopatrium Buch.-Ham. ex Bentham'''''''''' Limnophila R. Brown'''''''' Tribu Limoselleae'' \tLimosella L.'''' Tribu Stemodieae'' \tStemodia L.'''''' Stemodiopsis Engler'''' Tribu Mimuleae'' \tMimulus L.'''' Tribu Lindernieae'' \tCraterostigma Hochstetter'''''' Crepidorhopalon Ев. Fischer'''''' Lindernia Allioni'''''' Hartliella Ев. Fischer'''''' Torenia L.'''''' Artanema D. Don'''''' Bampsia Lisowski & Mielcarek'''' Sous-famille Aptosimoideae'''Aptosimum Burchell ex Bentham'' Sous-famille Digitalioideae'\tTribu Veroniceae \t\t'''' \tVeronica L.'''''\tTribu Sibthorpieae \t\t'' \t\tSibthorpia L.'' \tSous-famille Gerardioideae'\tTribu Gerardieae'' \t'''' \tSous-tribu Agalininae'''''' \t'''''''' \tHarveya Hooker'''''''''' Orobanche L.'''''''' Sous-tribu Alectrinae'''''' \t'''''''' \tAlectra Thunberg'''''''''' Melasma P. Bergius'''''''''' Gerardiina Engler'''''''' Sous-tribu Micrargeriinae'''''' \t'''''''' \tMicrargeria Bentham'''''''''' Micrargeriella R. E. Fries'''''''''\tTribu Buchnereae'\tSous-tribu Sopubiinae \t\t \t\t\tSopubia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don \t\t \tSous-tribu Buchnerinae'' \t'''' \tBuchnera L.'''' \tStriga Loureiro'''' \tParastriga Mildbraed'''' \tCycnium E. Meyer ex Bentham'''' \tRhamphicarpa Bentham'' \t \t' \tTribu Buttonieae \t\t'' \t\tThunbergianthus Engler'' \tSous-famille Pedicularioideae'\tTribu Pedicularieae \t\t'''' \tHedbergia Molau \t\t\tBartsia L.''''

  • Provided by: [D].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 
    Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and CanadaGeneral Information

    Fls perfect, hypogynous, sympetalous (rarely apetalous); cal 4–5-lobed or cleft; cor 5-lobed or less often 4-lobed, slightly to usually evidently irregular, often evidently bilabiate, sometimes spurred or saccate at base; stamens borne on the cor-tube alternate with the lobes, typically 4, or only 4 functional and the fifth (uppermost) one staminodial, sometimes only 2 (the upper lateral pair), seldom (Verbascum) 5 and all polliniferous; ovary superior, bilocular, with a terminal style and simple or 2-lobed stigma; placentation axile; fr mostly capsular; seeds (2–) ± numerous, with a straight or slightly curved dicotyledonous embryo and oily endosperm; herbs (all ours) or seldom woody plants, not infrequently hemiparasitic on the roots of other plants, but usually green even so; lvs exstipulate, opposite or alternate, simple to sometimes pinnately dissected, the fls in various sorts of infls, often large and showy. 190/4000.

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTAMorphology

    Calyx imbricate or valvate Corolla-lobes imbricate Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate; stipules absent Flowers hermaphrodite, mostly zygomorphic Ovules numerous on axile placentas Seeds numerous, with fleshy endosperm Fruit a capsule or berry Stamens often 4 or 2, rarely 5, inserted on the corolla and alternate with the lobes, sometimes the fifth stamen represented by a staminode; filaments free from each other; anthers 1-2-celled, opening lengthwise Ovary superior, entire, usually 2-celled; style terminal Herbs or shrubs, rarely small trees Corolla-lobes imbricate Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate; stipules absent Flowers hermaphrodite, mostly zygomorphic Ovules numerous on axile placentas Seeds numerous, with fleshy endosperm Fruit a capsule or berry Stamens often 4 or 2, rarely 5, inserted on the corolla and alternate with the lobes, sometimes the fifth stamen represented by a staminode; filaments free from each other; anthers 1-2-celled, opening lengthwise Ovary superior, entire, usually 2-celled; style terminal Herbs or shrubs, rarely small trees

    Flore d'Afrique CentraleMorphology

    Plantes annuelles, bisannuelles ou pérennes, herbacées ou suffrutescentes, rarement lianes, arbustes ou arbres; tiges dressées, ascendantes ou prostrées. Feuilles le plus souvent opposées, rarement alternes, entières, rarement découpées ou pennées, les bases des feuilles souvent connées (gamophyllie), sans stipules. Inflorescences en racèmes ou thyrses, sans fleur terminale. Fleurs zygomorphes, avec ou sans bractéoles; calice à sépales libres ou soudés, actinomorphe ou zygomorphe, souvent tétramère suite à la'réduction du sépale médian; corolle sympétale, zygomorphe, rarement actinomorphe, les pétales postérieurs (adaxiaux) souvent soudés, formant une lèvre supérieure opposée à la lèvre inférieure, la gorge de la corolle souvent fermée par un palais saillant et épais; étamines alternipétales et insérées dans le tube, au nombre de 4, parfois réduit à 2, la cinquième (médiane) le plus souvent réduite ou avortée; filets filiformes, souvent courbés ou tordus; anthères à 2 thèques bien développées ou à une thèque normale et l'autre réduite ou avortée; pollen le plus souvent tricolpé; ovaire supère, à placentation centrale; carpelles 2, soudés, parfois l'un des deux réduit; ovules anatropes ou hémitropes. Fruits: capsules septicides, loculicides ou poricides, rarement fruits indéhiscents (drupes, noix ou baies). Graines nombreuses, petites, à surface lisse, réticulée ou diversement ornementée (alvéoles, sillons, ailes); albumen présent; embryon droit.'Famille cosmopolite, comprenant 300 genres et quelque 5400 - 5500 espèces. Pour la Flore: 40 genres et 188 espèces.'Les genres Russelia Jacq. et Angelonia Bonpland, d'origine américaine, sont plantés au Congo-Kinshasa et au Rwanda dans les jardins. Les deux genres ne sont pas repris dans la clé et les spécimens suivants ont été observés:'''Russelia equisetiformis Schltdl. & Cham., Linnaea, 6: 377 (1831).'' Russelia juncea Zucc., Flora, 15, Beibl. 2: 99 (1832).'''''Congo-Kinshasa: Côtier (Boma: Kuasa 15). Bas-Congo (Kisantu: Vanderyst 20228, 20378, 24550, 24551, 25721, 28630, 33535). Kasai (Gandajika: Chalon 313). Forestier Central (Kisangani: Lejoly 5468).Rwanda: Rwanda-Burundi (Kigali: Fischer s.n.).'''''Angelonia goyazensis Benth. in DC., Prodr., 10: 253 (1846).'''''Congo-Kinshasa: Bas-Congo (Kisantu: Vanderyst 20717, 20723, 245647, 24548, 24564, 24574, 24803, 28120, 28697, 28700; Kipako: Vanderyst 14599). Forestier Central (Yambata: De Giorgi 1798).' CLASSIFICATION DES SCROPHULARIACÉES La classification des Scrophulariacées fait l'objet d'une discussion controversée. Dans la classification traditionelle (e.g. Wettstein 1891 in Engler & Prantl; Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien), on distingue trois sous-familles: les Pseudosolanoideae, les Antirrhinoideae et les Rhinanthoideae. Les deux dernières sont distinguées même dans des travaux récents (e.g. Mielcarek 1996). D'après les analyses morphologiques (e.g. Fischer 1992, Hartl 1974) et des données préliminaires en systématique moléculaire (Olmstead & Reeves 1995), la famille des Scrophulariacées constitue un groupe hétérogène et polyphylétique. Il y a plusieurs taxons monophylétiques, qui sont ici distingués comme sous-familles et qui sont caractérisés surtout par l'anatomie et la morphologie de l'ovule et des graines. Une description détaillée sera publiée ailleurs. La famille des Orobanchacées est intégrée ici dans les Scrophulariacées, non comme sous-famille séparée, mais dans les Gerardioideae. L'ensemble des genres d'Orobanchacées peut être intégré dans trois groupes de Scrophulariacées parasitiques selon la morphologie de leurs graines. Dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale, il n'est représenté que par le genre Orobanche, très proche de Harveya. Nous donnons ci-après un synopsis de la classification des genres en Afrique Centrale.'Sous-famille Antirrhinoideae'\tTribu Antirrhineae'' \t'''' \tMisopates Raf.'''' Sous-famille Scrophularioideae'\tTribu Verbasceae'' \t \t\t\tRhabdotosperma Hartl'''''\tTribu Selagineae \t\t'''' \tHebenstretia L. \t\t\tSelago L.'''''\tTribu Hallerieae \t\t'''' \tHalleria L.'''''\tTribu Russelieae \t\t \t\t\tRusselia Jacq.'''' Sous-famille Hemimerioideae'\tTribu Hemimerideae'' \t'''' \tAngelonia Bonpland'''''\t\t\tDiclis Bentham \t\tSous-famille Gratioloideae Tribu Gratioleae'' \tSous-tribu Gratioliinae'''''' \tBacopa Aublet'''''''''' Scoparia L.'''''''' Sous-tribu Dopatriinae'''''' \tDopatrium Buch.-Ham. ex Bentham'''''''''' Limnophila R. Brown'''''''' Tribu Limoselleae'' \tLimosella L.'''' Tribu Stemodieae'' \tStemodia L.'''''' Stemodiopsis Engler'''' Tribu Mimuleae'' \tMimulus L.'''' Tribu Lindernieae'' \tCraterostigma Hochstetter'''''' Crepidorhopalon Ев. Fischer'''''' Lindernia Allioni'''''' Hartliella Ев. Fischer'''''' Torenia L.'''''' Artanema D. Don'''''' Bampsia Lisowski & Mielcarek'''' Sous-famille Aptosimoideae'''Aptosimum Burchell ex Bentham'' Sous-famille Digitalioideae'\tTribu Veroniceae \t\t'''' \tVeronica L.'''''\tTribu Sibthorpieae \t\t'' \t\tSibthorpia L.'' \tSous-famille Gerardioideae'\tTribu Gerardieae'' \t'''' \tSous-tribu Agalininae'''''' \t'''''''' \tHarveya Hooker'''''''''' Orobanche L.'''''''' Sous-tribu Alectrinae'''''' \t'''''''' \tAlectra Thunberg'''''''''' Melasma P. Bergius'''''''''' Gerardiina Engler'''''''' Sous-tribu Micrargeriinae'''''' \t'''''''' \tMicrargeria Bentham'''''''''' Micrargeriella R. E. Fries'''''''''\tTribu Buchnereae'\tSous-tribu Sopubiinae \t\t \t\t\tSopubia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don \t\t \tSous-tribu Buchnerinae'' \t'''' \tBuchnera L.'''' \tStriga Loureiro'''' \tParastriga Mildbraed'''' \tCycnium E. Meyer ex Bentham'''' \tRhamphicarpa Bentham'' \t \t' \tTribu Buttonieae \t\t'' \t\tThunbergianthus Engler'' \tSous-famille Pedicularioideae'\tTribu Pedicularieae \t\t'''' \tHedbergia Molau \t\t\tBartsia L.''''

    Flora Zambesiaca - descriptionsMorphology

    Flowers solitary axillary or in terminal spikes, racemes, heads or panicles, arranged in racemes or cymes Flowers hermaphrodite, usually irregular, at times subregular Pedicels ebracteolate or bibracteolate Corolla tubular, campanulate, cylindric or ventricose or enlarged above; tube straight or variously curved to geniculate, at times basally produced into 1 or 2 spurs or sacs; limb usually 5- or 4-lobed, rarely 3–8-lobed, lobes subequal, more or less spreading, or clearly bilabiate with upper lip entire, emarginate or bilobed, erect, concave or galeate or at times flat or spreading, lower lip 3- (rarely 4-) lobed, spreading Calyx inferior, persistent, usually 5-lobed, occasionally 4-, or rarely 3-lobed, usually more or less united, campanulate, tubular, or shortly so almost lacking distinct tube, equal, unequal, valvate, variously overlapping or open in bud Filaments inserted in corolla tube or at throat, filiform or dilated, occasionally with lower variously appendaged at base Stamens 4, didynamous or equal, or 2 with occasionally 2 reduced to staminodes, or 5 with fifth subrudimentary, rarely perfect Ovary superior, sessile, entire, 2-, or rarely 3-celled, placentation central; style simple, entire or shortly cleft at apex; stigma small, capitate or clavate Anthers 1- orbilocular, free or frequently coherent, cells similar or with one smaller and sterile, connective often produced into 2 branches, each bearing cell Ovules many to numerous in each cell Seeds small, numerous, variously shaped, pitted, ridged or ribbed, rarely smooth Fruit usually capsular, septicidal or loculicidal, sometimes both, occasionally dehiscing by pores, rarely indehiscent Leaves opposite, alternate orverticillate, entire, toothed or variously lobed or dissected, or reduced to scales, estipulate Annual or perennial, terrestrial, amphibious or aquatic herbs, or leafless parasitic herbs lacking chlorophyll, shrubs or undershrubs, rarely trees, glabrous, variously pubescent or glandular-viscid Flowers hermaphrodite, usually irregular, at times subregular Pedicels ebracteolate or bibracteolate Corolla tubular, campanulate, cylindric or ventricose or enlarged above; tube straight or variously curved to geniculate, at times basally produced into 1 or 2 spurs or sacs; limb usually 5- or 4-lobed, rarely 3–8-lobed, lobes subequal, more or less spreading, or clearly bilabiate with upper lip entire, emarginate or bilobed, erect, concave or galeate or at times flat or spreading, lower lip 3- (rarely 4-) lobed, spreading Calyx inferior, persistent, usually 5-lobed, occasionally 4-, or rarely 3-lobed, usually more or less united, campanulate, tubular, or shortly so almost lacking distinct tube, equal, unequal, valvate, variously overlapping or open in bud Filaments inserted in corolla tube or at throat, filiform or dilated, occasionally with lower variously appendaged at base Stamens 4, didynamous or equal, or 2 with occasionally 2 reduced to staminodes, or 5 with fifth subrudimentary, rarely perfect Ovary superior, sessile, entire, 2-, or rarely 3-celled, placentation central; style simple, entire or shortly cleft at apex; stigma small, capitate or clavate Anthers 1- orbilocular, free or frequently coherent, cells similar or with one smaller and sterile, connective often produced into 2 branches, each bearing cell Ovules many to numerous in each cell Seeds small, numerous, variously shaped, pitted, ridged or ribbed, rarely smooth Fruit usually capsular, septicidal or loculicidal, sometimes both, occasionally dehiscing by pores, rarely indehiscent Leaves opposite, alternate orverticillate, entire, toothed or variously lobed or dissected, or reduced to scales, estipulate Annual or perennial, terrestrial, amphibious or aquatic herbs, or leafless parasitic herbs lacking chlorophyll, shrubs or undershrubs, rarely trees, glabrous, variously pubescent or glandular-viscid

    Flora of China @ efloras.orgGeneral Information

    Herbs, sometimes shrubs, rarely trees; mostly autotrophic, less often hemiparasitic or parasitic. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate, opposite, whorled, or basally opposite and apically alternate, simple or sometimes pinnately dissected. Inflorescences racemes, spikes, or thyrsoid panicles, determinate or indeterminate, or flowers solitary. Flowers perfect, usually zygomorphic, rarely actinomorphic. Calyx often persistent, (2-)4- or 5-lobed or -parted, variously connate. Corolla sympetalous; limb (3 or)4- or 5-lobed, often 2-lipped. Stamens mostly 4, didynamous, sometimes 1 or 2 staminodes present, less often 2 or 5 stamens; anther locules 1 or 2, equal or subequal, free or confluent. Nectary often present at base of ovary, ringlike, cupular, or reduced to a gland. Ovary superior, 2-loculed, rarely apically 1-loculed; ovules numerous, rarely 2 per locule, on axile placentas, anatropous or hemitropous. Style simple; stigma capitate, 2-lobed, or 2-lamellate. Fruit a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, or septifragal, sometimes opening by pores or irregularly dehiscent, rarely a berry. Seeds minute or rarely conspicuous, sometimes winged; testa often reticulate; hilum lateral or ventral; endosperm fleshy or absent; embryo straight or curved.

     Information From

    Flora Zambesiaca - descriptions
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • A
    Flora of China @ efloras.org
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • C The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • D http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern US and Canada
    https://www.nybg.org/
    World Flora Online Data. 2021.
    • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Scrophulariaceae
    https://powo.science.kew.org/
    World Flora Online Data. 2023.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2023.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).